Legends, Laws, and Lengthy Loaves

baguette history

History of the Baguette

What could be more traditionally French than the baguette, that long slender loaf of bread that has become an instantly recognised symbol of France? At any hour of the day, on the streets of any village, town, or city, you are likely to see the French strolling along with one of these elongated loaves tucked under their arm. That’s because this ubiquitous bread can accompany their breakfast, lunch, or dinner.

The word “baguette” simply means wand, baton, or stick and refers to the shape of the bread. This term became attached to the thin, round sticks of bread we know today, in the early twentieth century. But the baguette’s history may go back much further.

No one knows exactly when or why this French loaf took on its current shape, but there are several stories, and even some laws that give us clues to the baguette’s heritage.

French revolution poster by Margo LestzOne patriotic tale explains the possible origin of the baguette (but not its shape) by linking it to the French Revolution. Lack of bread was the principal complaint from the people of Paris and it played a big part in the overthrow of the monarchy. Bread was the mainstay of the French diet and they were tired of watching the nobility eat copious amounts of fine white loaves while they faced shortages and had to make do with bread that was barely edible.

So after the Revolution, making sure everyone had quality daily bread was high on the priority list. In 1793, the Convention (the post-Revolution government) made a law stating:

“Richness and poverty must both disappear from the government of equality. It will no longer make a bread of wheat for the rich and a bread of bran for the poor. All bakers will be held, under the penalty of imprisonment, to make only one type of bread: The Bread of Equality.”

Some might propose that since the baguette is enjoyed by rich and poor alike, it could have been this Bread of Equality. It’s a charming theory and a very French idea of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity, but could this law truly have created the forerunner of our beloved baguette?

napoleon and the baguetteOr did Napoleon Bonaparte have something to do with it? Another story claims that Napoleon passed a law decreeing that bread for his soldiers should be made in long slender loaves of exact measurements to fit into a special pocket on their uniforms. Since those measurements were close to the size of a modern baguette, certain people think this might be when the bread first took on its current form. If this is true, perhaps we have Napoleon to thank for the shape of our daily baguette.

Or was it the Paris metro? A different anecdote affirms that when the metro system was being built in Paris, the workmen from different regions just couldn’t get along and the overseer of the project was concerned about violence in the dark, underground tunnels. At that time, everyone carried a knife to cut their bread, so the supervisor went to the bakery to request loaves that didn’t need to be cut. A loaf of bread was regulated by weight, so in order to make it thin enough to be easily torn, it ended up being long and slender. Considering this, we might owe our beloved baguette to rowdy metro workmen.

Paris metro and baguetteWhenever and for whatever reason the first wand-shaped breads appeared, by the mid 1800s in Paris, they were everywhere. But these weren’t the French loaves that we see today. No, they were baguettes on steroids. Many foreign visitors marvelled at the extraordinary lengths of the Parisian bread they saw.

They described loaves of bread 6 feet (2 metres) long being delivered by women carrying them stacked horizontally, like firewood, in a frame on their backs. Housemaids were on the streets at 6:00 in the morning carrying these long loaves home for their employer’s breakfast. In the afternoon, young boys could be seen using these lengthy baguettes as pretend swords and engaging in mock battles before the bread made its way to the family table. One visitor remarked that in a restaurant, the baker came in and stacked loaves 6-8 feet (2-2.5 metres) long in the corner like a bundle of sticks. Another describes the bread having to be laid on the dining table lengthwise because it was longer than the table was wide.

long baguettesThose long breads that made such an impression on nineteenth century tourists must have been the forerunner of today’s more manageably sized baguette. The modern, shorter version seems to have come into being in the 1920s, when a law was passed prohibiting bakers from working between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 4:00 a.m. The current baguette was probably developed because its thin form allowed it to cook faster. The baker could start at 4:00 in the morning and the baguettes would be finished in time for the first customer’s breakfast. It was during this time that the term “baguette” first became associated with the slender loaves that are seen everywhere in France today.

Bread has always been important to the French, and for centuries, it was their main food source. Today, even though bread is an accompaniment to a meal instead of the main course, it still plays an important part in French life – and the most popular bread in France is the baguette. Since there are boulangeries (bakeries) everywhere in France, there’s never an excuse for not having a nice crunchy baguette with every meal. And while you’re walking home nibbling on the end of your baguette, you can ponder the French Revolution, Napoleon, and the Paris metro… and be thankful that you’re not trying to manoeuvre a 6 foot (2 metre) long loaf of bread down the street.

A bit more about bread:

* If you would like to read a nice article about how to buy the perfect baguette, see this article on FranceSays blog – How the French stick changed my life.  Or to learn a bit of bread vocabulary, see this article on the same blog – The quignon.

Berets-Baguettes-and-Beyond-400wide*More about France – You can read more stories like this in my book Berets, Baguettes, and Beyond. Or see all my books HERE

*Don’t Miss Anything – If you would like to receive an email every time I post an article (2-3 times per month), sign up to follow my blog. You’ll find the button just above my photo. And, of course, you can always leave a comment below. Thank you for reading.

Margo Lestz

I am a perpetual student who enjoys travel, languages, history, writing, and experiencing other cultures.

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33 comments

  1. Really enjoyed reading this, thank you. I would like to believe Napoleon was responsible for the shape of the baguette, it has a certain ring to it! Have a lovely weekend.

    1. I’m glad you enjoyed the article. Maybe it was Napoleon who was responsible for the baguette – he was pretty good about regulating things and making laws. I think most of the laws in use today are from him. Best -Margo

  2. Interesting history! I can add that some of the older generation in my husband’s family would make a cross on the back of the loaf with the tip of the knife before cutting it. They were not especially religious so I think it was just a superstition to bring luck.

  3. I would be perfectly happy to make a meal out of a French baguette – served with a glass of wine – yum! Interesting post as always 🙂

  4. What an interesting array of baguette stories and I suppose we’ll never know the true reason. All I can say though is I am glad there are artisan bakers out there still who can still make the most fabulous bread for us to enjoy.

  5. I love the bit about the long loaves. I feel like I should be persuading our local boulanger to give them a go…

  6. Very interesting article. I have taken to the “French way” of eating bread with all my meals rather too enthusiastically I fear and continue it when I am back in the UK too. It could be why there is rather more of me than there used to be!!

  7. What a wonderful post on the history of this iconic bread. We were in Normandy last week and I would have liked to have brought a whole boot load back to London. Instead I settled for one delicious baguette and enjoyed it with some butter. Bliss! Margo – love your blog, you are living my dream. Glad I came across it on #AllAboutFrance

    1. Thanks, Katy! There is nothing quite like a good baguette – especially just out of the oven… Yummm!
      Thank you for the kind words about my blog. I’m glad you like it.
      Best ~Margo

  8. We live in an American backwater (don’t ask me why, for I don’t understand either) and we constantly long to be there eating baguettes morning, noon, and night!

    1. Well, you’ll just have to take a little “French baguette holiday” and come to France and get your fill of those tasty bread sticks. 🙂 Tempted?

  9. Fascinating history. I must admit, though, that the baguettes made around here are not that brilliant. A much better bet is usually the fatter flûte. At least it’s fatter here in SW France. In the Cantal (not that far away), I once asked for a flûte and was given what looked more like a piccolo! Where would we be without French bread?

    1. The baguette is really part of the French culture, isn’t it? Normally, each bakery has their specialty baguette, so maybe you should try multiple bakeries to find one you really like. Nothing beats a good baguette!
      Best of luck ~Margo

      1. Mm. Haven’t found one in 19 years here, so I guess I need to keep looking, but some of the other specialty breads in this area are very good – pain aux noix, for example.

  10. I love the idea of the really long bread. My son would be in heaven as he could live off French bread. (Actually so could I!) We are so lucky having such great bread around even if as 24/7 says not all baguettes are created equal. Thanks for linking up to #AllAboutFrance

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